Comparison of soil physicochemical and mechanical properties in stabilized landslides with alder in Hyrcanain Forest
Ameneh Chakezadeh, Seyed Ata ollah Hosseini, Ehsan Abdi, Ghavamodin Zahedi Amiri
Collection and preparation of soil, water and plant samples for analysis
Shahin Hassanpour1*, Naser Maheri-Sis1, Behrad Eshratkhah2 and Farhad Baghbani Mehmandar3
- Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran.
- Department of Veterinary Medicine, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran.
- Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: The objective of this review was to investigate and identification of structure and role of the tannins in plants. During growth and maturation period in plants, some substances can be found in structure of them which they have essential role in plant fortune. These substances are called plants secondary metabolites. One of the most important of secondary metabolites is Tannins. The function of tannins in plants is a much discussed by previous researchers issue. A great deal of research with tannins has followed an approach that looks at biological relationships: taxonomy, phylogeny, biosynthesis, nutritional and physiological effects on herbivorous animals e.g. ruminants. Tannins are defined as phenolic compounds of high molecular weight ranging from 500 to more than 3000 which they found in plants leaves, bark, wood and bound to proteins that form insoluble or soluble tannin-protein complexes. They have been closely associated with plant defense mechanisms towards mammalian herbivores and insect. Tannins are divided into two main groups, according to their chemical structure and properties: hydrolysable (HT) and condensed tannins (CT). Hydrolysable tannins are usually found in lower concentrations in plants than CTs. Condensed tannins consist of flavanoid units (flavan-3-ol) linked by carbon-carbon bonds. They are found in many plant species such as Acacia spp, Sericea lespedeza as well as pasture species such as Lotus spp. In recent years many researchers demonstrated that tannins have positive effects on animals by anti microbial, anthelmintic, protein bypassed effects in ruminants.
Keywords: plants secondary metabolites, Tannins, Hydrolysable tannins, Condensed tannins.
Int. J. Forest, Soil and Erosion, 2011 1 (1):47-53
Seyed Fazel Mirahmadi (Iran), Mohammad Reza Hasandokht (Iran), Mohammad Esmail Hassani (Australia), Fatemeh Sefidkon
- Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
- Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, Australian Technology Park, University of Sydney, Australia.
- Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: In this study, genetic diversity among 25 populations (each population 6 plants) of Achillea bieberstenii Afan. collected from 12 provinces of Iran using a total of 35 morphological and agronomical characteristics including 31 quantitative and 4 qualitative traits was evaluated as an important step for possible use in the breeding programs of this medicinal plant. According to the results of analysis of variance, there were significant differences among the studied populations for some important characters. Also, results of simple correlation analysis were shown the significant positive and negative correlations among some important characters. Factor analysis was also used for defining of the determinant factors and the characters constituted in each factor. In Principal component analysis (PCA), 10 main and independent factors with over Eigen values than two explained 85.36% of the total variation related to main effective characters. Based on the constructed dendrogram, 25 populations of A. biebersteinii were clearly divided into 11 main clusters. Groups mainly have differences in yield and yield components. In this investigation not only was observed high variation for studied morphological characteristics but also some native populations were clearly shown their valuable breeding potential in some agronomical traits for breeding programs and medicinal purposes.
Keywords: Achillea bieberstenii Afan.; Breeding; Genetic diversity; Medicinal plant; Morphological traits; Natural populations
Int. J. Forest, Soil and Erosion, 2012 2 (1): 1-7
E. Dumlu1, M. M. Özgöz1, Ş. Çakal1, E. Aksakal1, M. Uzun1, U. Şimşek2
- Eastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute, Erzurum, Türkiye
- Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Iğdır University, Iğdır, Türkiye
ABSTRACT: Study was conducted in natural grasslands of Artvin Province, Türkiye in 2003. The aim of the study was to determine the species of Leguminosae, Gramineae and other families and their percentage in the grassland vegetation. Modified wheel point method was employed to study the vegetation in 20 grassland zones. Grassland quality degrees and condition classes were identified through Resource and Enviromental Data Interpretation System (REDIS) package software. As a result of the study, 95 species were determined of which 17 legume, 20 graminae and 58 other families. Species of the other families constituted the 50,4% of the botanical composition while the shares of leguminosae and gramineae species were 23,4% and 26,2% in the total. Regarding the contribution to the botanical composition 9 leguminoseae forage species (Onobrychis hajastana, Trifolium hybridum, Medicago papillosa, Trifolium alpestre, Trifolium ambiguum, Vicia caracca, Medicago varia, Trifolium pratense and Lotus corniculatus) and 10 gramineae species (Bromus erectus, Dactylis glomerata, Bromus tomentellus, Festuca sp., Androgopogon sp., Koeleria cristata, Poa pratensis, Agropyron repens, Phleum montanum, Agropyron intermedium) were determined. The most frequent legume and gramineae species in the studied areas were Onobrychis hajastana and Agropyron intermedium with the rates of 2,63% and 2,55% respectively. This analysis revealed that half of the studied grassland zones was in medium quality while the rest was in good class.
Keywords: legume, forage crop species, Yusufeli -Artvin, Türkiye
. Full paper of this article has been submitted and accepted in LANDCON1005, May 2010, Ardebil, Iran and submitted in International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion by Conference Editor.
Int. J. Forest, Soil and Erosion, 2011 1 (1):43-46